Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) is a deposition technique that is used to coat materials in order to improve its hardness, oxidation resistance, and wear resistance. A material can be coated to very minimal thicknesses ranging from nanometers to micrometers using PVD which is more than enough to increase its lifetime.

Fundamentals of PVD

PVD can be achieved through various methods such as Cathodic Arc Deposition, Electron Beam-PVD, Evaporative Deposition, Pulsed Laser Deposition, and Sputter Deposition. Though these methods may differ from each other at certain steps, they all follow some of the basic fundamentals of PVD that includes:

  1. Vaporization of a material from condensed phase at a high temperature in vacuum.
  2. Transportation of the vapour to the substrate surface.
  3. Deposition onto the substrate surface by condensation.
In this PVD technique, material from a cathode target is vaporized by an electric arc. The vaporized material is then allowed to condense on the substrate forming a thin film (coating).
In this process, the electron beam from a charged tungsten filament under vacuum is bombarded on a target anode which results in the transformation of the target atoms into vapour. The vaporized atoms then precipitate onto everything in the vacuum chamber forming a thin layer of coating.
In this technique a pulsed laser beam is employed to vaporize the material to be deposited. The vaporized material is then deposited on the substrate forming a thin line of coating.
Sputter deposition involves sputtering or ejecting material from the source onto the substrate which results in the formation of a thin film growth on the substrate.

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